lab02 : Writing Functions, Tests, and using tkinter

num ready? description assigned due
lab02 true Writing Functions, Tests, and using tkinter Wed 10/09 12:00AM Wed 10/23 08:59AM

In this lab, you’ll get more practice with:

This lab must be done solo.

Step 1: Verify that pytest is working on the machine you plan to work on

Similar to lab01, you can check whether pytest is installed by typing in the following command in the Python shell prompt (>>>).

[cgaucho@csil-12 ~]$ python3
Python 3.4.3 (default, Aug 9 2016, 15:36:17) [GCC 5.3.1 20160406 (Red Hat 5.3.1-6)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import pytest

If it returns no error message (like is shown above), then pytest is installed. If you get an error, refer back to lab01 for instructions on installing pytest.

Step 2: Make a ~/cs8/lab02 folder.

The easiest way to create a new folder is to do the following, which will work from any directory:

mkdir -p ~/cs8/lab02

This form of the mkdir command, with the -p option/flag, has the advantage that

Then, to get yourself into that directory, type:

cd ~/cs8/lab02

Again, it should work from any directory.

Step 3: Create a file called in your ~/cs8/lab02 directory

Refer to lab00 for how to create a new file.

Step 3.0: Add the preliminary information

To start out lab02, , write a comment with your name and PERM number in (in general, you should write this on each of your submitted source files).

Next, write the line:

import pytest

Step 3.1: Add the function definition

Add the following function definition into your file.

def perimRect(length, width):
   """ Compute perimeter of a rectangle """
   """ Using the formula: ADD THE FORMULA HERE """
   return -42.0 # stub  @@@ replace this stub with the correct code @@@   

Step 3.2: Add the test functions

Add the following function definitions into your file. These are a special kind of function called a test case. These particular test cases are written in the style used by the pytest testing framework, and they follow these rules:

  1. The name of each test cases function must start with test_.
  2. Each one ends (typically) with a line of code that starts with the keyword assert, followed by a boolean expression.
    • If the expression is True, the test case passes.
    • If the expression if False, the test case fails.
  3. Each test case function must have a different name (hence: test_perimRect_1, test_perimRect_2, test_perimRect_3, etc.). They don’t have to be consecutive numbers—we could use _a, _b, _c or anything really, as long as they are all different. In general though, your parameter, variable, and function names should be descriptive for better readability.
def test_perimRect_1():
   assert perimRect(4,5) == 18

def test_perimRect_2():
   assert perimRect(7,3) == 20

def test_perimRect_3():
   assert perimRect(2.1,4.3) == pytest.approx(12.8)

Finally, run the code, and ensure that you don’t have any syntax errors in your Python code.

Step 4: Test your code by hand

Because we want to be sure that you continue to practice the skill, test your code by hand first.

That is, select “Run Module” in IDLE, and then type in a few function calls at the Python Shell Prompt. Here are a few:

>>> perimRect(4,5)
>>> perimRect(7,3)

Ok, we see that the function will continue to provide us with the same answer, consistent with the return value in our function definition. The point is that

There is a reason for that. We call this a “stub value”. It returns the wrong answer on purpose so that we can check that all of the tests fail. We want to see all of the tests fail, and after we fix the function,we can to see all of the tests pass. That’s the general idea.

Step 5: Run pytest on the file so far

As a reminder, you run pytest OUTSIDE of IDLE, at the regular terminal prompt ($).

You may find it helpful to bring up a second terminal window and use

cd ~/cs8/lab02

to get into the correct directory. Then use:

python3 -m pytest

You should see three test failures. If you do, then you ready to fix the code so that it works, which is the next step.

(If you need a refresher on how to interpret the output of pytest, refer back to lab01.)

If you got a SyntaxError: invalid syntax, then verify that you are running the command not in IDLE (which has the >>> prompt), but in Unix (which has the $ prompt).

Step 6: Fixing the code for perimRect

As usual, if you have failing test cases, the thing to do is fix the code so that the test cases pass.

We hope you remember (or know how to find) the formula for the perimiter of a rectangle. First, write it as a comment in the appropriate section in your file. Next, you’ll have to convert that formula into Python, and use the variables length and width to get your function to work properly.

Once you have the code correct, try testing both using interactive testing as well as by running pytest.

You are by no means finished with this lab. But, we want to encourage you to make a submission to Gradescope now anyway. Here is why:

  1. After you upload your file, it will provids a backup copy of your work in case something goes wrong with your computer (yes, this happens and you want to make sure there is a backup somewhere).

  2. You also will be able to see some progress towards completion of the lab— partial credit for completion of this step.

Once you’ve submitted and you see that you got more than 0 points, you are ready to continue with the rest of the lab.

Step 7: Write an areaTriangle function and test cases.

You will write your own function areaTriangle(base, height) and some test cases in your file. Be sure you define your function’s signature with the** exact name** shown here (otherwise, the tests on Gradescope are not going to pass).

It’s also a good habit to define comments for all the functions you write. Include a comment for areaTriangle to describe what this function does. Note that the function comments have to either be in a string (as explained in the textbook), enclosed in triple single-quotes or in triple double-quotes (as shown in the perimRect function). Your function should return the area of a triangle using the base and height parameter values.

You should try to make the function pass the test cases that you put in.

In some cases you’ll be given the test cases. In other cases, you have to supply these test cases yourself.

At each step, you should first try to get the test cases to pass by running pytest at the Unix command line as discussed above.

Once you see your tests are passing, THEN submit a version to Gradescope to see if you also pass the test cases the instructor defined in Gradescope.

If you pass your own tests, but NOT the instructor supplied tests, then try to see if you can figure out why. Are there some cases that you did not consider?

In this step, you must define three test cases to test areaTriangle. The code for the first test case looks like this

def test_areaTriangle_1():
	assert areaTriangle(4,5) == 10

The second and third test case should be one that you come up with yourself. The restrictions are:

Once this is done, then:

Once everything passes correctly with pytest, submit your file to Gradescope again to see if your submission passes the areaTriangle tests. You should see that you now have earned the next set of points if the perimRect and areaTriangle tests pass.

Step 8: Write and test a function using namedtuples.

In this step, you will write a function that computes the price of n copies of a namedtuple representing a Book object. Copy and paste the following code in your file.

from collections import namedtuple

Book = namedtuple("Book", "title author price")
b1 = Book("Ready Player One", "Ernest Cline", 16)

Recall from lecture, this is how we defined a Book object with a title, author, and price attributes. We construct a specific book representing the_ Ready Player One_ book written by Ernest Cline that costs 16 dollars. We store this specific book representation in the variable b1 (a name that we chose).

Using this information, write the function computePrice(n, book) that returns the price of n copies of a book. Similar to perimRect and areaTriangle functions, write a brief comment in your computePrice function describing what the function does.

Write three test functions to test if computePrice works as expected. The code for the first test case looks like this

def test_computePrice_1():
	assert computePrice(0, b1) == 0

Write two more test cases, test_computePrice_2 and test_computePrice_3 with different values for n. Be sure to test if your code works with “Run Module” and use python3 -m pytest -k computePrice to run just the test cases for the computePrice function.

Once everything passes correctly with pytest, submit your file to Gradescope again to see if your submission passes the computePrice tests. You should see that you now have the correct number of points if the perimRect, areaTriangle, and computePrice tests pass.

The last part of the lab gets you to explore how to create graphics using Python.

Step 9: Using tkinter to draw a face

In this step, we will use the Python module tkinter used to draw simple graphics. This module has many features that you can read about using this link, but for this step we will only use a small subset of tkinter’s functionality. The goal of this step is not to go through the details of tkinter (this will take more than one quarter of instruction to do so), but to use a simple subset of functionality to draw a face using a single function.

For this step, create a new file called in your ~/cs8/lab02 directory.

First, we will create a canvas to draw things on. Copy and paste the following code in your

import tkinter # Imports the tkinter library in your program

window = tkinter.Tk() # Create a window to draw graphics on

canvas = tkinter.Canvas(window, width=500, height=500)
# Create a 500x500 pixel canvas

canvas.pack() # Places the canvas in the window

You can think of the canvas with (x,y) coordinates, but it’s a little different than a typical cartesian coordinate graph. Think of the canvas with an origin point (0,0) as the upper left corner of the window.

We can draw ovals on our canvas using the create_oval(x1, y1, x2, y2) function.

Run the following code to illustrate the coordinate system. This code does not necessarily need to be part of your final submission, but it is a helpful visualization:

canvas.create_oval(0, 0, 10, 10, fill="black")
canvas.create_line(5, 5, 5, 500, fill="red")
canvas.create_line(5, 5, 500, 5, fill="blue")

The above code draws a circle centered at (5, 5) to mark a point near the origin, it draws the y axis in red, and it draws the x axis in blue. You can see the origin in the upper left: this is a common convention in computer graphics, and it reflects the convention used in matrix indexing, where the top left matrix element is usually referred to as element (0, 0).

Copy and paste the following function definition and function call in your file.

def drawFace():
	""" Draw a face on the canvas """
	# Draw head
	canvas.create_oval(100, 100, 400, 400)

	# Draw left eye

	# Draw right eye

	# Draw mouth
drawFace() # Call the function to draw a face

The first thing to note is that drawFace does not return a value. Functions may or may not return a value depending on what they may be used for. In this case, the purpose of drawFace is to simply display something on the screen. Without a return statement in a function, the None type is returned.

Select “Run Module” to see your window and a “head” drawn on it (IDLE creates a graphics window when you run this module. If you don’t see it, it might be hidden behind other windows on your computer screen).

This function already draws a circle with a diamater of 300 pixels representing the face’s head. We can also fill the circle with a color by passing in an optional parameter to create_oval. For example, we can draw a green circle for the head by adding the fill="green" parameter like this

canvas.create_oval(100, 100, 400, 400, fill="green") 

tkinter accepts many pre-defined color strings such as "red", "blue", "yellow", "black", "dodger blue", etc. A list of predefined color strings can be found here:

Complete the drawFace() function definition (completing each of the “TODO” parts) by drawing the remaining parts of the face. Your face drawing must

An example face can look like this

tkinter Face

Step 9.5: Bonus! Draw a Mickey Mouse face

This is an extra credit, bonus exercise for you to have fun with tkinter.

Below is a reference image. You’ll need to use your skills from step 9 to create the head, ears, eyes, nose, and mouth - they won’t look exactly like the picture, and some approximation will be necessary since the mouth is not a perfect ellipse. Feel free to be creative. :-)

Save your file as and upload it to Gradescope.

Mickey Mouse face

Step 10: Uploading your files to Gradescope

Navigate to the Lab assignment “Lab02” on Gradescope and upload your and Even though Gradescope will not auto-check your drawing, you must upload file to receive credit for this step. If you did the bonus part, upload that file here as well.

Your Gradescope submission containing the functions you wrote will be autograded. Our TAs will grade your pytest functions and your face drawing manually. This lab is out of 100 points.